Ch 2: Test Yourself

  1. 3d human with a red question markYou decide to paraphrase an idea you read in an academic article but you don’t give a reference to the author and source of the idea.
  2. Several students work on a project together: one did an extensive literature review and wrote up that section; another designed the questionnaire and got a sample to fill it out; another student helped by coding the data and running a statistical program for data analysis; and a fourth student put it all together in writing up the final report. Ethically, you feel not everyone should be given equal credit for the project and share in the authorship.
  3. The results from your survey don’t seem to be what you thought they would be. So, you exaggerate the findings you like the most and ignore the answers from the questions you don’t like so you don’t report them.


  1. Plagiarism is when you don’t acknowledge the source of your ideas. If you copy exact sentences from a report or publication, you of course must give specific reference to the author, the article or book, the page number of the quote, and publication information (date, journal name or book publisher). But even if you simple paraphrase the idea or findings in your own words, you must also provide information about the author and source.
  2. Assuming you all agreed ahead of time to work on this project and agreed to this division of labor, then you must all give each other equal acknowledgment and credit for the final project. Each person may contribute in his or her best way, and each person thus deserves equal recognition, even if some aspects take longer to do.
  3. You must always report all the results from your survey, regardless if they support your research questions and hypotheses. You cannot ethically pick and choose what to report, and you must try to present the findings in neutral language without using words to overemphasize or downplay what you discovered.

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