Chapter 3

Designing Research

Concepts, Hypotheses, Measurement


Central to doing survey research is understanding the idea of operationalization and how to go from ideas to concepts to variables. Learning the various levels of measurement is also essential for analyzing data.This chapter shows how to write hypotheses using independent and dependent variables and how to evaluate the reliability and validity of measures. By the end of the chapter, you should be able to distinguish the different levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, and interval/ratio), discuss the various kinds of reliability and validity, and create one-directional, two-directional, and null hypotheses.

Chapter 3 Resources & Examples

Chapter 3 Test Yourself


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